The Parameters and Stakes of Misappropriation and Misuse

The authors included in this collection address the infringement upon their own and other Indigenous Peoples’ arts, cultural expressions, and artistic practices using a variety of terms including appropriation, misappropriation, misuse, plagiarism, and theft. This publication does not seek to untangle or narrow the terms used to describe these various forms of infringement; rather, our approach has been to allow contributors to share their own experiences in their own voices, and to employ the terms that are meaningful to them. As Cherokee scholar Dr. Adrienne Keene has written,

appropriation is not about a simple ‘borrowing’ of cultural elements or an equal cultural exchange – it’s a much more insidious, harmful act that reinforces existing systems of power, 1Keene, Adrienne. “Whose Culture Is It, Anyhow?” The New York Times, The New York Times, 4 Aug. 2015,

referring to what transpires when members of a dominant culture appropriate from those whose culture that same dominant group has long oppressed. Regardless of the particular terms employed, the writings in this text are unified by a concern for when the rights of Indigenous artists and knowledge holders have been abrogated by other individuals, organizations, and corporations with or without the intention to do so. This latter point on intentionality is important to foreground, as a common argument against misappropriation is that positive intention renders claims of appropriation null and void. Another misunderstanding about appropriation arises from the fallacy that it is only constituted by premeditated intention to use or replicate without the agreement of the artist or individual. There continue to be instances where artists use what they (mis)understand to be merely a “technique” or “style” of Indigenous art to create their work, without realizing that Indigenous hereditary rights often govern the usage of such designs and technique. Ignorance of the ways in which Indigenous artistic “technique” (such as that used in Throat Singing or formline design) constitutes an artwork points to the continued need to educate the public regarding the relationship between Indigenous rights and cultural practice. Yet another misunderstanding arises from the very category of Indigenous art as “folk art”. By this token, generations of settler Canadians have understood Indigenous art to be a resource inherited by the Canadian public. As Lou-ann Neel cogently notes in this publication, Indigenous art was “often mistakenly understood by the general public to be ‘in the public realm’ – and must therefore be available to use free of charge or free of permissions.”

In terms of this categorization of what Indigenous art is, it is additionally imperative to remember, as Dylan Robinson points out in his article, that Indigenous art holds functions beyond its existence as art. Indigenous art, cultural expressions, and artistic practices, including song and dance, have important roles as primary historical documentation (the equivalent to a book) of a family or community, as medicine, or as a legal order. Additionally, such art forms are sometimes considered by Indigenous people as having life — as ancestors, as beings, and life that is not comparable to human life. In this way, the misuse of what might be considered an artwork or song, in some instances may violate more than the artist’s rights; it may enact epistemic violence against these other forms of knowledge, or against life. Thus, while financial loss is one of the primary impacts when forms of Indigenous cultural expression are used without explicit agreement from individual artists, there is also significant cultural and spiritual detriment that arises from the appropriation of Indigenous artwork, design, and other cultural expression.

As Robinson and MacKay each point out, appropriation was often experienced within a context of Canadian settler colonialism, including widespread cultural censorship imposed upon Indigenous Peoples between the late nineteenth and mid-twentieth centuries under Section 3 of the Indian Act (often referred to as the Potlatch Ban), but also by missionaries and churches, as well as through residential schools. Thus, the experience of having one’s cultural practice ‘taken’ is experienced as a dual loss that is felt intergenerationally.

Kagi odja ishkwasik mamowi ka anotc inabidjitcigadek

Ke ojibigetc oma odanmodan ka odja pamendik anishnaben eja kishkitonjin, atsokawini, eja kishkitowatc miya kegoni kidji inabijitowatc, kidja midji inabijitowatc dish, kidji keknawabidjikadenik mamowi kimodowini. Kawin wedi ki-ojotchigadesinin kidja abwamowatc koni kidja animodimowatc keija mamendimowatc anishnabe ehja inabijitok odinakonigewinya, ninwek nigi odapinananan kidja pigidinimac ka widokazowatc kidja abijitowac odinehwiya, kidja abidinik dish anishnabek ehja tebwetik. Awedi anishnabe Cherokee kabiodisetc, ogi oshibiyan agwa miya ehgi todimowatc apitc ka odapinik anishnabe eja enabijitok kegoni, kinoweh kinagoni eh-manedjigeyatc ehja mishkweziyatc winw, ododapinawan awin agwa ka mishkwizindjin anishnaben kidja pikanendagozindjin. Misowatc gotc ikidinanok odimatawin, mizinigan wedi kago ojitchigadek ikidomigin eh tebwetimowatc anishnabe ehja kendik koni ehja tebwetimowatc, wabishkiyek oga midja abidjitonawa misowatc gotc agwa inendimowatc anotc eh todimowatc. Kotabidin oma kidja nisitik, kidja kisha abak apitc anotc ijadabinanonik. Kodik anotc ka ijidabinanok, miya kegi ijinagokbin , odagi pontinawa ka inendimowatc kidja kishka kodigini kidja migadik ogonen ima ke tebwe-tcigadenik. Kiyabitc odinendanawa ka kishkitondjin agwa eh nisitimindjin ehja kishkitowatc eh ojitowatc kegoni, kawin ogakendisinawa anishnaben eh kotabidink odikidowin mamowi odinakonigewin, ojitowatc kegoni. Kan odtebwetsin anishnaben ehja kishkitondjin, tapbishkotc nigimowin ikweyok ka nigimtadowat, eh abidjitcigadenik kinamowsini kidji kinamowaginitc gotc agwendik, adidik gotc enegizitc. Actic anotc odinendanawa, agwa kanisitimowatc anishnabe odistcigewin agwa eh tebwemigink. pikan odijinikadanawa. Weni dish, maneh odinendanawa wabishkiyek eh minaginidjin anishnaben kidji ija kishkitondjin. Ka ijabiyak dish Lou-Ann ka ijinkazitc, ki ikado anishnabek pinigotch Anotc ehgi ija nisitik, kidja manotc abijitigadenik agwa mankatc kidja gwedjimaginiyatc.

Ehja atcigadek dish weni anishnabe ka ija kishkiton, kawin onisitisinawa kidja kendimowatc pinigotc, Dylan Robinson ka ijibegetc dish, anishnabek odokonanawa odiyanawa ke inabijitcigadenik kendimowini ehja kishkitowatc kegoni ojitowatc. Anishnabe odostowiniya, ejagabwmigin nik odikidowinawa, ehja kishkitowatc, onigimowinya mamowi oniminya, togoni ima atsokani ejagabwitc anishnabek, miya gotc mizinigin ka ijanagok, anish ehja tebwetimoway omishkimya koni keh ija widimowaginiyatc tebwetimowini. Acitc weni ka todimowatc anishnabek, odiyanawa ehja tebwetimowatc madiziwini, ogokomisyan, ojomsimin acitc ehja madiziyatc. Midish weni miya Ka ijinkadenik eja kishkitowatc koni nigimoni, nangodin manendagoni ehja tebwetik ehja kishkitok ka kendik, kido oja manendagoni ehja madizitc. Megwatc shonia abidinik, onitowatc dish, kawin miya inabidjitcigadesini odikidowin ehja kendik, tedigo actic kotadendagoni anishnabe ehja abidinik odebwetimowin kegoni ojitok ke inabidinik.

Ka ikidowatc Robinson mamowi Makay, tapishkot ki ikadok ehgi panima miya ehgi kidinjin agwa ka anishnabewinjin, mamowi kagi atcigadenik dish anishnabe keh tebwetic, apitc weshkitc nitim ka ojitchigadek anishnabe ke ijagabwetc, kitchi ogima omiziniginikak, ogimanodagin mamowi mekodawkineh actic ka kinamagendjin kagi ojitowatc. Awik weni kamosakidik, eh mikimaginik ehja tebwetik, kina awik omosehkidan kewinwa.

Aen Ishchikatayk akwa En risk ouschi Kipachi-awpachihtawin akwa Waanapachihtawin

Oki authors ashtahk didawn ooma tout sort dafayr peekishkwachikatayk ooma peekounikaywin ishi wiya soon akwa kootaaka Lii Pramyii Nawsyoon Li moond li art, ka ishi pimaatishihk kishchiitayimoowin, akwa artistic prachik aen apawchistawk paahkaan ay-itwewin avek katawa awpachihtawin, kipachi-awpachihtawin, waanapachihtawin, kimoutiwin, akwa li voulaez. Ooma publication namoo wiya natoonam aen apihkoona keema i veu maegree ooma ay-itwewin ka awpachistaw la diskripsyoon ouschi oohin paahkaan ay-ishchikatayk ishi peekounikaywin; mawak, niyanawn nakishkamoowin aykwawnima aen ki pakitinamahk ishi weechihiwaywak aan paar wiyawow soon kishkayhtamowin didawn soon la lway, akwa aen awpachistawhk oohin ay-itwewina aykwawnihi aenportaan ishi wiyawow. Kaw-ishi Cherokee scholar Dr. Adrienne Keene oushpayhikayt, “katawa awpachihtawin namoo wiya ouschi aen wayshchishik “dawhtawmoowin” ouschi ka ki ishi pimaatishihk enn seksyoon keema aen parau ka ki ishi pimaatishihk mayshkoutoonikaywin— mawka kiyawpit nawut keemoochihiwaywin, mayiitotatakewin aykwawnima la fors ita ka ashtayk aen system ouschi la pouwayr,”  kishkaymowin oushci kaykwawy ay-ishpayik ishpi li maambr ouschi aen kischi aykishchiitaymoowin nahiyokohk ouschi aykwawniki soon aykishchiitaymoowin aykwawnima paray li praynsipaal la bonch ki kinwaysh kakwaatakihtaw. Mawka kiyawm ouschi ooma ispray ay-itwewin kaw-awpachistawhk, ooma oushpayhikaywin didawn ooma la parol aen gischeetayimitouwin ouschi nakatoohkewin pour ishpi lii drway ouschi Lii Pramyii Nawsyoon lee portray kawshoupaykakem akwa kishkayistamowin michiminikaywak ki chikounikawtayw ouschi kootaakak li moond, mamowwiitowuk, akwa mamowwiitowuk avek keema noohpoo itaystamowin aen itootahk. Ooma si li bout la pwaent ouschi oochihtow tooumowin aykwawnima aenportaan ishi waapamikaashoowin, ishi si pa rawr keehkawtouwin pakwatem kipachi-awpachihtawin aykwawnihi sartaen oushistaw itootumowin itwaywin ouschi katawa awpachihtawin namoo wiya atoushkaymakun. Kootaak nashpatistumowin ouschi katawa awpachihtawin ouschipayin aen nashpawchistawin aykwawnima pikou e-oushchikawtayw ouschi oochihtow tooumowin aen awpachistaw keema kawhkeehtwawmi oushtawhk noohpoo ooma awn nagrimawn ouschi artist keema li moond. Meena kiiyawpit aen ishpaayihk itay lee portray kawshoupaykakem awpachistaw kaykwawy (nash)patistumowin aen ki pikou “en mayaynr” keema “la mayaenr” ouschi Lii Pramyii Nawsyoon art aen oushtawhk soon louvrazh, noohpoo kishkayistam aykwawnima Lii Pramyii Nawsyoon ka nakatamaahk lii drway souvawn paminikayw ouschi awpachistawin en sort itashinihikataywina akwa en mayaynr. Kakaypatishiwin ouschi ka ishi awpachistaw Lii Pramyii Nawsyoon artistic “en mayaynr” (tapishkoot aykwawnima ka awpachistahk didawn La gorzh Nakamouwin keema formline itashinihikataywin) aen takwashta aen artwork la pwaents ishi ooma kiiyawpit ayndawayishchikayhk kishshinahamakaywin ishi li piblik ouschi oohi mamaawinitowin awntor deu Lii Pramyii Nawsyoon lii drway akwa ka ishi pimaatishihk prochikee. Mawak kootaak meena nashpawchistawin aen ishpaayihk ouschi ooma mitouni itoowahk ouschi Lii Pramyii Nawsyoon art aykwawnima “folk art”. Kiyawpit nawut ouschi ooma, awn partawn li mouds ouschi aypayweekit Aen zhawnd Canada ki nishtoostum Lii Pramyii Nawsyoon art aykwanima aen weechihiwaywin ka nakatamaahk ouschi Aen zhawnd Canada li piblik. Ka ishi Lou-ann Neel mitouni waapahtahm didawn ooma publication, Lii Pramyii Nawsyoon art ki “souvawn nashpatistumowin ouschi kahkiyuw pour awiyek li piblik aen ki ‘didawn ooma li piblik realm’ – akwa saprawn chi akooshchi astayw chi awpachistahk nou kaykway tipahikaywin keema pour aryaen li paarmisyoon.”

Didawn ay-itwewin ouschi ooma wahpaashchikaatewin kaykwawy ooma Lii Pramyii Nawsyoon art, aykwawnima meena aenportaan aen kishkishi, ka ishi Dylan Robinson la pwaent didawn soon article, aykwawnima Lii Pramyii Nawsyoon art michiminam atooshkaywin kwawshtayhkamik soon pimawtishiwin ishi art. Lii Pramyii Nawsyoon art, ka ishi pimaatishihk kishchiitayimoowin, akwa artistic prachik, avek en sawnsoon akwa en dawns, ayowak aenportaan toushkaywin ishi li promyee tawn’d kayawsh wawpahchikawtaywin (paray ishi aen leevr) ouschi la famee keema alawntour, ishi la michinn, keema ishi si la lway lee zord. Akwa meena, isti art ka ay-ishchikatayk ki awshkuw itaystamwak Lii Pramyii Nawsyoon li moond isti ayowak pimawtishiwin — ishi la parawntee kayawsh ouschi, ishi li moond, akwa pimawtishiwin aykwawnima namoo wiya tapishkoot li moond pimawtishiwin. Didawn ooma ishi, ooma waanapachihtawin aykwawnima ka itaystakwahk artwork keema en sawnsoon, didawn awtist oohin ka ishpaayihk aen piikoonum kiyawpit nawut ayowak oohin lee portray kawshoupaykakem lii drway; ka ki tootum epistemic la shikaan pakwatem oohin kootaaka ay-ishchikatayk oouschi kishkayistamowin, keema pakwatem pimawtishiwin. Akouschi, maykwawt larzhawn wunihtawin isti payeek ouschi neekawn ayimiihiwewin ishpi ay-ishchikatayk ouschi Lii Pramyii Nawsyoon ka ishi pimaatishihk kishkayistamowinka awpachistawhk noohpoo pa saartaen awn nagrimawn ouschi li moond li lee portray kawshoupaykakem, akwa meena aenportaan ka ishi pimaatishihk akwa amihayshtoutawin damaazh aykwawnima keepaynawkwun ouschi katawa awpachihtawin oooma Lii Pramyii Nawsyoon artwork, itashinihikataywin, akwa kootaaka ka ishi pimaatishihk kishkayistamowin.

Ka ishi Robinson akwa MacKay la pwaent aen kishkishomiwaywak, katawa awpachihtawin ki souvawn kwawtakistawhk didawn aen aen ishchikatayk ouschi Aen zhawnd Canada aypayweekiw colonialism, avek mishowayitay ka ishi pimaatishihk censorship la fors disseu Lii Pramyii Nawsyoon Li moond awntor deu ishpi tawr nineteenth akwa mid-twentieth sawn zawn awntsoor enn seksyoon 3 ouschi ooma Lii Pramyii Nawsyoon Act (souvawn aen kishkishomiwayhk isti ooma Potlatch Ban), mawka meena ouschi missionaries akwa l’igleez, akwa meena shawpou itay kawweekihk l’ikol. Akouschi, ooma n kwawtakistawin aen ayahk li moond ka ishi pimaatishihk prochikee ‘ootinikatayw’ isti kwawtakistawin isti doubl wunihtawin aykwawnima aen moushtahk intergenerationally.

ᐊᖏᓂᖏᑦ ᐅᓗᕆᐊᓇᕐᓂᖃᕐᓂᖏᓪᓗ ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᕙᖕᓂᖏᑦ ᐃᓕᖅᑯᓯᑐᖃᕆᔭᐅᒐᑎᒃ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᑐᕐᓂᕐᓗᒃᑕᐅᕙᖕᓂᖏᓐᓂ

ᐃᓱᒪᒋᓪᓗᒋᑦ ᑕᒡᕘᓇ ᐊᕕᒃᑐᖅᓯᒪᓂᖓᒍᑦ ᓱᓇᐅᖕᒪᖔᑕ ᓄᓇᓕᑐᖃᐃᑦ ᓴᓇᐅᒐᕆᕙᒃᑕᖏᑦ, ᐱᒻᒪᕆᐅᒋᕗᖅᑕᐅᖅ ᐃᖅᑲᐅᒪᔭᕆᐊᖃᓂᖅᓂ, ᒪᓕᒡᓗᒋᑦ ᑎᓕᓐ ᕌᐱᓐᓴᓐ ᐅᖃᐅᓯᕆᕙᖏᑦ ᐅᓂᒃᑳᖏᓐᓂ, ᓄᓇᓕᑐᖃᐃᑦ ᓴᓇᐅᒐᖏᑦ ᐊᑑᑎᖃᕐᒪᑕ ᐅᖓᑖᓂᒃ ᓴᓇᐅᒐᑐᐃᓐᓇᐅᓂᕐᒥᒃ. ᓄᓇᓕᑐᖃᐃᑦ ᓴᓇᐅᒐᖏᑦ, ᐃᓕᖅᑯᓯᑐᖃᖏᓐᓂᒃ ᓴᕿᐅᒪᑎᑕᖏᑦ, ᐱᐅᓯᕇᓐᓇᖅᑕᖏᓪᓗ ᐊᑐᖃᑦᑕᐃᓐᓇᖅᑕᖏᑦ ᓲᕐᓗ ᐃᖏᐅᓯᖏᑦ ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᕿᓚᐅᔾᔭᖃᑕᕐᓂᖏᑦ ᐱᒻᒪᕆᐊᓗᖕᓂᒃ ᐊᑑᑎᖃᕐᒪᑕ ᑕᐃᒪᖓᓂᒃ ᖃᐅᔨᒪᔾᔪᑕᐅᖃᑕᕐᓂᕐᒧᑦ (ᓲᕐᓗ ᐅᖃᓕᒫᒐᕐᒥᒃ ᑎᑎᕋᖅᓯᒪᔪᑎᑐᑦ) ᐃᓚᒌᒃᑐᓂᒃ, ᓄᓇᓕᖕᓂᓗᓐᓃᑦ, ᐃᓱᐊᖅᓴᐅᑎᑎᑐᑦ, ᐅᕝᕙᓗᓐᓃᑦ ᒪᓕᒐᓕᐅᕈᓯᐅᓂᕐᒧᑦ. ᐊᒻᒪᑕᐅᖅ, ᑕᒪᒃᑯᐊ ᓴᓇᐅᒐᐃᑦ ᐃᓛᓂᒃᑯᑦ ᐃᓱᒪᒋᔭᐅᕙᖕᒥᔪᑦ ᓄᓇᓕᑐᖃᐃᑦ ᐃᓄᖁᑎᖏᓐᓄᑦ ᓲᕐᓗ ᐃᓅᓯᖃᕐᓂᖅ ᓯᕗᓪᓕᕕᓂᖅᑎᑐᑦ, ᐆᒪᔪᖅᑎᑐᑦ, ᐃᓅᓯᖃᕐᓂᕐᒧᓪᓗᓐᓃᑦ ᐊᔾᔨᒌᖏᑕᖏᓐᓂᒃ ᐃᓄᐃᑦ ᐃᓅᓯᕆᕙᒃᑕᖏᓐᓂᒃ. ᑕᐃᒪᐃᓕᖓᓗᑎᒃ, ᐊᑐᕐᓂᕐᓗᒃᑕᐅᔪᓐᓇᕐᓂᖏᑦ ᓴᓇᐅᒐᐃᑦ ᐃᓐᖏᐅᑏᓪᓗᓐᓃᑦ/ᐱᓰᑦ, ᐃᓚᖏᓐᓂ ᓱᕋᐃᓂᐅᔪᓐᓇᕐᒪᑕ ᓴᓇᔨᐅᔪᑦ ᐱᔪᓐᓇᐅᑎᖏᓐᓂᒃ; ᓱᕋᑦᑎᕆᓂᐅᔪᓐᓇᕐᒪᑕ ᖃᐅᔨᒪᔭᑐᖃᕐᓂᒃ ᑕᒪᒃᑯᓂᖓ ᖃᐅᔨᒪᔭᐅᔪᑐᖃᐅᕙᒃᑐᓂᒃ, ᐅᕝᕙᓗᓐᓃᑦ ᐃᓅᓯᖃᕐᓂᖏᓐᓂᒃ. ᑕᐃᒪᐃᓂᖓᓄᑦ, ᑮᓇᐅᔭᓕᐅᖅᑎᑕᐅᕙᖏᓂᖏᓐᓂᒃ ᔭᒐᐃᕙᒃᓱᑎᒃ ᐃᓚᖓᓂᒃ ᐱᒻᒪᕆᐅᔪᓂᒃ ᐊᒃᑐᖅᑕᐅᓯᒪᕙᒃᑭᕗᑦ ᓄᓇᓕᑐᖃᐃᑦ ᐃᓕᖅᑯᓯᑐᖃᕐᒥᒍᑦ ᐱᓐᖑᖅᑎᖃᑦᑕᖅᑕᖏᑦ ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᖃᑕᕐᕿᓂᖏᓐᓂᒃ ᐊᖏᖅᑕᐅᓯᒪᒐᑎᒃ ᓴᓇᔨᖏᓐᓄᑦ, ᐱᒻᒪᕆᐊᓗᖕᒥᒃᑕᐅᖅ ᐃᓕᖅᑯᓯᑐᖃᖏᓐᓄᑦ ᐅᒃᐱᕆᔭᑐᖃᖏᓐᓄᓪᓗ ᐱᐅᖏᑑᕙᒃᑐᓂᒃ ᓴᕿᑎᑦᑎᕙᒃᑭᕗᑦ ᖃᓄᐃᓕᐅᕈᑕᐅᔭᕋᖓᒥᒃ ᓄᓇᓕᑐᖃᐃᑦ ᓴᓇᐅᒐᐃᑦ, ᖃᓄᐃᓕᐅᕈᑎᖏᑦ ᐊᓯᖏᓐᓂᒡᓗ ᐃᓕᖅᑯᓯᑐᖃᕐᒥᓂᒃ ᐊᑐᖅᐸᒃᑕᖏᑦ ᐱᐅᓰᑦ.

ᕌᐱᓐᓴᓐᑯᒃ ᒪᑮᒃᑯᑦ ᐊᑐᓂ ᖃᐅᔨᑎᑦᑎᒋᐊᖅᓱᑎᒃ, ᑕᒪᒃᑯᐊ ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᒐᔪᒃᓯᒪᒋᕗᑦ ᑲᓇᑕᒥᐅᓄᑦ ᓄᓇᑖᖅᑎᑕᐅᓯᒪᔪᓄᑦ ᐊᐅᓚᑦᑎᓂᖏᓐᓂᒃ ᖃᓪᓗᓈᖑᖏᑦᑐᓂᒃ, ᐊᒥᓱᓂᒡᓗ ᐃᓕᖅᑯᓯᖃᖅᑎᑦᑎᑕᐃᓕᒪᓇᓱᐊᖅᓯᒪᓂᖏᓐᓂ ᓄᑕᐅᓗᑎᒃ
ᐃᓗᓕᖏᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᖅᓯᒪᔪᑦ 3-ᖓᓂ ᑕᐃᑲᓂ ᐊᓪᓚᐃᑦ ᒪᓕᒐᖏᓐᓂ (ᐅᖃᐅᓯᐅᒐᔪᒃᑐᓂ ᐊᓪᓚᓄᑦ ᑕᐃᔭᐅᒐᔪᖕᓂᖅ ᑲᑎᒪᔪᓐᓇᐃᓕᑎᑕᐅᓚᐅᕐᓂᖏᓐᓂ ᐱᒃᓴᓂᒃᓯᕝᕕᐅᕙᖕᓂᖏᓐᓂᒃ ᐃᓕᖅᑯᓯᖏᓐᓂ ᐊᔪᓕᖅᑎᑕᐅᒐᒥᒃ), ᐊᒻᒪᓗᑦᑕᐅᖅ ᑕᒪᒃᑯᓄᖓ ᑐᒃᓯᐊᕐᕕᓕᕆᔨᓄᑦ, ᑐᒃᓯᐊᕐᕕᖏᓄᓪᓗ, ᐊᒻᒪᓗ ᐊᐅᓪᓚᖅᑎᑕᐅᖃᑦᑕᖅᓱᑎᒃ ᓄᑕᕋᐃᑦ ᐃᓕᓐᓂᐊᕐᕕᖕᓄᑦ. ᑕᐃᒪᐃᓂᖓᓄᑦ, ᐊᑐᖅᑕᐅᖃᑕᕐᓂᖏᑦ ᐃᓕᖅᑯᓯᑐᖃᕆᔭᖏᓐᓂᒃ ‘ᐊᖅᓴᖅᑖᐅᖅᓯᒪᓂᖏᑦ’ ᐊᒥᓱᓂᒃ ᔭᒐᐃᓯᒪᓗᑕᐅᕗᖅ, ᐃᒃᐱᖕᓂᐊᔭᐅᔪᓂᒃ ᕿᖑᕚᒐᓴᒌᒃᑐᓄᑦ.